Expansion of the upper arch is a common method of transverse correction, numerous expansion appliances have been described with varying protocols, force levels, techniques and duration of treatment. Broadly speaking expansion can be divided into dento-alveolar expansion or skeletal expansion.
In this blog we will focus on a common method of skeletal correction, Rapid Maxillary Expansion. How it works, indications, and risks.
The principle behind RME is not part of conventional orthodontic tooth movement. Conventional orthodontic tooth movement entails a light force of 12-150gm being transmitted to the periodontal ligaments, resulting in the dento-alveolar bone re-modelling in the direction of the force, and moving the tooth with it. RME on the other hand involves much larger forces of 900 to 4500 gm, this higher force separates the mid-palatal suture. As the palatal shelves separate, the host response is to heal the bony separation, a process with is driven by the tension across the gap, resulting in new bone between the separated palatal shelves (distraction osteogenesis).
Palatal shelves are different to other craniofacial bones, as they are not considered to fuse until the last decade of life, instead the sutures ‘close’ (Kokich 1975). The difference in the two seemingly similar terms, is that with closure there remains a lack of continuous bone cross the suture site, RME can therefore separate the suture, seemingly without the need of surgery, as it is not a continuous bone. However ‘closure’ is a progressive term and results in an increase in interlocking of bone, which results in greater resistance to separation. From an appliance perspective this increase in interlocking, as well as increasing resistance from adjacent bones of the palate, renders RME ineffective after a period of development, indicating the need for surgery. RME is considered to work effectively and reliably in patients below 14 years of age (Sokucu 2009). It is worth mentioning at this point expansion of the screw is not a 1:1 ratio of expansion of the maxilla, this is due to the resistance experienced in successful cases. The ratio of screw expansion to maxillary expansion is around 3:1, i.e. 9mm of screw expansion results in 3mm of maxillary skeletal expansion Bazargani 2013.
Bell, 1982 described the biomechanical response of RME in his paper. He described that upon application of transverse force the following reactions occurs:
Hugo De Clerck made an incredibly simple and enlightened statement at the AAO meeting in 2021, stating orthopedic changes of the craniofacial region are rotational, NOT linear (covered as a podcast previously). This is due to the differing number of sutures and interactions each bone surface has, resulting in a varying resistance and therefore movement. Consequently all orthopedic changes must have an effect (albeit varying) in 3 planes of space. The effects with RME on the maxilla in 3 different planes:
Effects to the mandible have been reported as follows
However the quantity of expansion in the mandible is small at 0.96-1.08mm, which is not of clinical significance, and mandibular expansion should not be expected in a clinically relevant way with the use of RME Lo Giudice 2020.
The following are the main indications for RME:
There are other claims of RME use, which have not been investigated sufficiently to conclude an association with so far, these controversial areas are:
We will be exploring breathing related disorders and orthodontics in a future blog, suffice it is to say a source of debate amongst us.
Chronological age is a poor measure of skeletal development, so to work out the ideal time to use RME with predictable outcomes cervical vertebral maturation has been proposed Perrson 1977, Baccetti 2001. Early treatment carried out before peak skeletal maturation was defined as CVMS 1-3 (cervical vertebral maturation) and late treatment after peak in skeletal maturation as CVMS 4-6. Baccetti’s landmark paper from 2001 showed early treatment resulted in greater maxillary skeletal expansion of 2.5mm. However a number of recent studies with more robust protocols found no significant difference between early Vs late RME treatment for younger patients (up to 18 years of age), Sayar 2019, Mohan 2016.
What defines ‘late’ treatment is being re-defined due to the advent of mini-screws and a modified RME appliance with Miniscrews (MARPE) with a recent systematic review showing the possibility of separation of the palatal shelves from ages 18-42, although the studies were retrospective Kapetanović 2021.
RME, like any other orthodontic intervention, comes with some risks. These can be avoided or prevented by careful history taking, clinical and radiographic examination and diagnosis.
RME should therefore be considered in light of the potential risks of bony fenestrations and root resorption Vs the clinical benefit.
Risks of RME
Up to 0.71mm horizontal bone loss. 47% chance of buccal fenestration 1st molar
6-7% posterior teeth
McQuiellen J. Review of the dental literature and art: separation of the superior maxilla in the correction of irregularity of teeth. Dent Cosmos 1860; 2: 170−173.
Bell, R., 1982. A review of maxillary expansion in relation to rate of expansion and patient’s age. American Journal of Orthodontics, 81(1), pp.32-37.
Baccetti T, Franchi L, Cameron CG, McNamara JA Jr. Treatment timing for rapid maxillary expansion. Angle Orthod. 2001
Almuzian, M., Short, L., Isherwood, G., Al-Muzian, L. and McDonald, J., 2016. Rapid maxillary expansion: a review of appliance designs, biomechanics and clinical aspects. Orthodontic Update, 9(3), pp.90-95.
Stockfisch H. Rapid Expansion of the Maxilla – Success and Relapse. Paper presented at Report of the Congress: European Orthodontic Society, 1969.
Baysal, A., Karadede, I., Hekimoglu, S., Ucar, F., Ozer, T., Veli, İ. and Uysal, T., 2012. Evaluation of root resorption following rapid maxillary expansion using cone-beam computed tomography. The Angle Orthodontist, 82(3), pp.488-494.
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