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Orthodontic treatment in stage IV periodontitis patients. Spyridon Papageorgiou. EFP Euro series. October 27th 2021. Episode 141

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Hosted by
Farooq Ahmed

 

Join me for a summary of the EFP’s lectures on periodontitis and orthodontic treatment. The orthodontic lecture was by Spyridon Papageorgiou and two lectures from periodontists, The topic explored related to stage IV periodontitis and orthodontics

 

 

Stage IV – new classification from world workshop Papapanou 2017

  • Clinical attachment loss 5mm+
  • Bone loss extend to mid third of root
  • Malocclusion / masticatory dysfunction
    • Bite collapse: Loss of posterior support resulting in tooth movement in the direction of force – (complex), over-eruption and incorrect relationship with antagonistic teeth
    • Drifting Due to mastication forces
    • hypermobility due to secondary occlusal trauma
    • Even if periodontally stable Further tooth movement 33% at 2 years Zhang 2017.
      • Orthodontic pathological tooth movement: Loss of space in the arch, mesial migration, crowding, crossbites

 

 

Periodontal Treatment for stage IV Sanz 2020 Kloukos 2021

  1. Stage 1 : Supragingival debridement, oral hygiene, professional plaque removal, risk factors
  2. Stage 2 – Supra and subgingival debridement – change the subgingival biofilm Interventions: Repeat subgingival therapy, surgical: flap, reactive, regenerative (Barrier membrane, Enamel matrix derivative)
  3. Supportive periodontal care

 

 

Effects of appliances on the periodontium R/V Papageorgiou 2018 / 2021

  • Transient change in microbiology from orthodontic appliances
  • Bone loss marginal 0.5mm
  • Clinical attachment loss 0.11mm
  • Recession
    • Greater recession 1.9mm
    • Gingival recession and loss of attachments Salti 2017
  • Greater if hyperdivergent
  • GTR no consistent clinical benefit
  • Fixed better than aligners PPD 1.6mm – small study
  • No difference in ligation, conventional self ligating
  • 1-3 months periodontal intervals in orthodontic treatment better outcomes than 6 monthly Jiang 2021

 

Biomechanics

 

Adapting orthodontic treatment

  • Centre of rotation moves apically
    • Same force = larger moment
    • Greater extrusion forces

 

  • Simulate intrusion in normal periodontal support vs reduced Kettenbeil 2013 Bagdadi 2019
    • Centre of resistance moves apically 2-3mm
    • Increased tooth movement 1.6-2.5, increase strain in PDL 1.4-2 possible harm to periodontium

 

Retention

  • Generally different fixed retainers compatible with periodontal health and not detrimental Arn 2020
  • Metal bonded retainers still allow physiological movement
  • Effect of mobility – UNKNOWN
  • Greater failure of bonded retainers in more severe periodontal cases (up to stage 3) Han 2021
  • 10 year follow up of ortho and perio = no significant recession or tooth loss BUT increase in root fracture – possibly due to increased forces?

 

Conclusions

  • Orthodontics does not negatively impact periodontal condition
  • Initial anti-infective periodontal treatment
    • Unsure type of periodontal treatment, GTR unclear, unsure what time to start after perio
  • Appliances
    • Fixed maybe better
    • Segmental better than continuous archwire
    • Adapt biomechanics due to attachment loss
  • In orthodontic treatment – patients attend periodontics at 1-3 months
  • Retention after orthodontic treatment – greater failure rates
  • Possible increase in root fractures
  • Limited evidence

 

 

 

Papapanou, Panos N., Mariano Sanz, Nurcan Buduneli, Thomas Dietrich, Magda Feres, Daniel H. Fine, Thomas F. Flemmig et al. “Periodontitis: Consensus report of workgroup 2 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri‐Implant Diseases and Conditions.” Journal of periodontology 89 (2018): S173-S182.

 

Sanz, M., Herrera, D., Kebschull, M., Chapple, I., Jepsen, S., Berglundh, T., Sculean, A., Tonetti, M.S., EFP Workshop Participants and Methodological Consultants, Merete Aass, A. and Aimetti, M., 2020. Treatment of stage I–III periodontitis—The EFP S3 level clinical practice guideline. Journal of clinical periodontology47, pp.4-60.

 

Papageorgiou, Spyridon N., Anastasia A. Papadelli, and Theodore Eliades. “Effect of orthodontic treatment on periodontal clinical attachment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” European journal of orthodontics 40, no. 2 (2018): 176-194.

 

Papageorgiou, Spyridon N., Georgios N. Antonoglou, Dimitrios Michelogiannakis, Lydia Kakali, Theodore Eliades, and Phoebus Madianos. “Effect of periodontal–orthodontic treatment of teeth with pathological tooth flaring, drifting, and elongation in patients with severe periodontitis: A systematic review with meta‐analysis.” Journal of Clinical Periodontology (2021).

 

 

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